JDK 13 Security Enhancements

05 Aug 2019

JDK 13 will soon be released! As with my JDK 12 blog, I have gathered up a list of the most interesting and useful security enhancements in this release. And as before, I have grouped them into appropriate categories (crypto, TLS, etc) which should make it easier to find out what has changed in each specific area.

Table of Contents

  1. Crypto
  2. TLS
  3. GSS-API and Kerberos
  4. SASL
  5. XML Signature
  6. Tools

Crypto

  1. Support for Microsoft Cryptography Next Generation (CNG) API

    On Windows, the SunMSCAPI JCE provider has been enhanced to support CNG. The provider can now load RSA and EC keys in CNG format from Windows keystores. The provider also now supports elliptic curve Signature algorithms (SHA1withECDSA, SHA256withECDSA, etc.).

    Issue: https://bugs.openjdk.java.net/browse/JDK-8026953

  2. PKCS#11 version 2.40

    The SunPKCS11 provider has been updated to PKCS#11 v2.40. This update adds support for additional PKCS#11 mechanisms, attributes, key types and adds support for several new algorithms:

    Java Algorithm                     PKCS#11 Mechanism       
    
    MessageDigest.SHA-512/224          CKM_SHA512_224                     
    MessageDigest.SHA-512/256          CKM_SHA512_256
    MAC.HmacSHA512/224                 CKM_SHA512_224_HMAC
    MAC.HmacSHA512/256                 CKM_SHA512_256_HMAC
    Signature.RSASSA-PSS               CKM_RSA_PKCS_PSS
    Signature.SHA1withRSASSA-PSS       CKM_SHA1_RSA_PKCS_PSS
    Signature.SHA224withRSASSA-PSS     CKM_SHA224_RSA_PKCS_PSS
    Signature.SHA256withRSASSA-PSS     CKM_SHA256_RSA_PKCS_PSS
    Signature.SHA384withRSASSA-PSS     CKM_SHA384_RSA_PKCS_PSS
    Signature.SHA512withRSASSA-PSS     CKM_SHA512_RSA_PKCS_PSS
    Signature.SHA224withDSA            CKM_DSA_SHA224
    Signature.SHA256withDSA            CKM_DSA_SHA256
    Signature.SHA384withDSA            CKM_DSA_SHA384
    Signature.SHA512withDSA            CKM_DSA_SHA512
    Cipher.AES/GCM/NoPadding           CKM_AES_GCM
    

    Issue: https://bugs.openjdk.java.net/browse/JDK-8080462

TLS

  1. javax.security.cert APIs marked for removal

    The deprecated javax.security.cert APIs have been marked for removal and are subject to removal in a future release. These APIs exist only to support applications written against early versions of the Java Secure Socket Extension (JSSE), prior to its inclusion in JDK 1.4. Applications should use the java.security.cert package instead.

    Issue: https://bugs.openjdk.java.net/browse/JDK-8160247

  2. X25519 and X448 Diffie-Hellman elliptic curve support

    The SunJSSE provider has been enhanced to support the x25519 and x448 elliptic curve named groups with x25519 being the highest preferred group. These curves are supported for TLS versions 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3. The default list of named groups is now:

    x25519, secp256r1, secp384r1, secp521r1, x448, 
    sect283k1, sect283r1, sect409k1, sect409r1, sect571k1, sect571r1, 
    secp256k1, ffdhe2048, ffdhe3072, ffdhe4096, ffdhe6144, ffdhe8192
    

    This order can be overridden using the jdk.tls.namedGroups system property.

    Issue: https://bugs.openjdk.java.net/browse/JDK-8171279

  3. Stateless Server

    The SunJSSE provider now supports stateless sessions, which can significantly improve the performance and scalability of a TLS server under large workloads.

    For this release, the feature is not yet enabled by default. On the client side, it can be enabled by setting the jdk.tls.client.enableSessionTicketExtension system property to “true” and on the server side, by setting the jdk.tls.server.enableSessionTicketExtension system property to “true”.

    Issue: https://bugs.openjdk.java.net/browse/JDK-8211018

  4. Enabled cipher suites order changed to improve security

    The order of the default list of enabled TLS cipher suites has been modified with several changes to improve security. See the CSR for full details.

    Issue: https://bugs.openjdk.java.net/browse/JDK-8163326

  5. Server-side cipher suite order now preferred

    The TLS cipher suite selection algorithm has been modified to use the server’s cipher suite order, rather than the client’s.

    Issue: https://bugs.openjdk.java.net/browse/JDK-8168261

GSS-API and Kerberos

  1. Kerberos cross-realm referrals

    Client support for principal name canonicalization and cross-realm referrals, as specified in RFC 6806 has been added to the Kerberos implementation.

    This feature can greatly simplify usability and configuration in a Kerberos environment of multiple realms.

    Issue: https://bugs.openjdk.java.net/browse/JDK-8215032

  2. Native GSS-API library on Windows

    A Windows implementation of the GSS-API library has been added to the JDK. This provides better interoperability and integration with Windows. For example, it can directly read Windows login user credentials.

    This implementation is supported on the client-side only and it is not enabled by default. To enable it, set the sun.security.jgss.native system property to “true”.

    Issue: https://bugs.openjdk.java.net/browse/JDK-6722928

SASL

  1. SASL mechanisms can now be restricted

    A new security property named jdk.sasl.disabledMechanisms has been introduced to allow you to disable SASL mechanisms that you no longer want to be used. There are no mechanisms disabled by default. Mechanisms can be added to the property in the java.security configuration file. Here is the definition of the property:

    # Disabled mechanisms for the Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL)
    #
    # Disabled mechanisms will not be negotiated by both SASL clients and servers.
    # These mechanisms will be ignored if they are specified in the mechanisms argument
    # of `Sasl.createClient` or the mechanism argument of `Sasl.createServer`.
    #
    # The value of this property is a comma-separated list of SASL mechanisms.
    # The mechanisms are case-sensitive. Whitespaces around the commas are ignored.
    #
    # Note: This property is currently used by the JDK Reference implementation.
    # It is not guaranteed to be examined and used by other implementations.
    #
    # Example:
    #   jdk.sasl.disabledMechanisms=PLAIN, CRAM-MD5, DIGEST-MD5
    jdk.sasl.disabledMechanisms=
    

    Issue: https://bugs.openjdk.java.net/browse/JDK-8200400

XML Signature

  1. String constants for Canonical XML 1.1

    New public constants named INCLUSIVE_11 and INCLUSIVE_11_WITH_COMMENTS have been added to the javax.xml.crypto.dsig.CanonicalizationMethod API. These represent the URIs for the Canonical XML 1.1 and Canonical XML 1.1 with Comments algorithms for XML Signature. Now you can use the constants instead of the URIs in your application, ex:

    TransformService.getInstance(CanonicalizationMethod.INCLUSIVE_11);
    

    Issue: https://bugs.openjdk.java.net/browse/JDK-8224767

  2. javax.xml.crypto.dsig.keyinfo.KeyValue.EC_TYPE constant

    A new public constant (EC_TYPE) representing the URI of the ECKeyValue element has been added to the javax.xml.crypto.dsig.keyinfo.KeyValue API. This allows you to identify this type in your applications using the constant instead of the URI.

    Issue: https://bugs.openjdk.java.net/browse/JDK-8223053

Tools

  1. keytool command for displaying TLS configuration information

    The keytool utility has a new command (-showinfo is the command and -tls is the option) that displays information about the TLS configuration of the system that the command is run on. This information includes a list of the enabled protocols and cipher suites, ordered by priority.

    Here is an example output of running the command:

    $ keytool -showinfo -tls
    Enabled Protocols
    -----------------
    TLSv1.3
    TLSv1.2
    TLSv1.1
    TLSv1
    
    Enabled Cipher Suites
    ---------------------
    TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
    TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
    TLS_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256
    TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
    TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
    TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256
    TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
    TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256
    TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
    TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
    TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256
    TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
    TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
    TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
    TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384
    TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384
    TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
    TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
    TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA256
    TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA256
    TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
    TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
    TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
    TLS_ECDH_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
    TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
    TLS_ECDH_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
    TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384
    TLS_ECDH_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384
    TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
    TLS_ECDH_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
    TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
    TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
    TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
    TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
    TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
    TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
    TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
    TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
    TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
    TLS_ECDH_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
    TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
    TLS_ECDH_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
    TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
    TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
    TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA256
    TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
    TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
    TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
    TLS_EMPTY_RENEGOTIATION_INFO_SCSV
    

    Issue: https://bugs.openjdk.java.net/browse/JDK-8219861